In this article, we will look at what a CPU processor is, what functions it has and what it consists of.

Each computing device (PC, smartphone, camera) has a center that is responsible for the correct operation of the machine – the processor.

In a broad sense, a processor is a device that performs computational and logical operations on data. Most often, this term is used to refer to the central processing unit of a device. Decoding CPU – Central Processing Unit. This is the most important part of the computer. His brain. It looks like a square measuring approximately 5×5 cm:

On the back of the CPU there are legs, with which it is attached to the motherboard:

The speed of command processing and the productivity of other components of the computer depend on the power of the central processor. For example, you can buy a modern video card, but it will not be able to show its capabilities if it is controlled by a weak CPU.

CPU functions

What are the functions of the central processing unit (CPU)? The main function is to manage all computer operations: from the simplest addition of numbers on a calculator to starting computer games. If we consider the main functions of the central processor in more detail, CPU:

  • receives data from RAM, performs arithmetic and logical operations with them, transfers them to external devices,
  • generates signals necessary for the operation of internal nodes and external devices,
  • temporarily stores the results of operations performed, transmitted signals and other data,
  • accepts requests from external devices and processes them.

What the CPU is made of

The central processor consists of 3 parts:

  1. The processor core that does most of the work. It allows you to read, decode, execute, and send instructions. The core consists of the following parts:
  • Arithmetic logic unit (ALU) . Performs basic mathematical and logical operations. All calculations are done in binary.
  • Control device (UU) . Controls the CPU using electrical signals. The consistency of the work of all parts of the processor and its connection with external devices depend on it.

Each core can only perform one task, albeit in a split second. A single-core processor performs each task sequentially. For a modern volume of operations, this is not enough, therefore CPUs with more than one core are valued in order to perform several tasks at the same time. For example, a dual-core performs two tasks at the same time, a tri-core performs three, and so on.

  1. Storage device . This is a small internal memory of the CPU. It consists of registers and cache memory . The registers store the current commands, data, intermediate results of the operation. Frequently used commands and data from RAM are loaded into the cache memory. Accessing the cache is faster than accessing RAM, so the amount of cache memory affects the speed of query execution.
  2. Buses are the channels through which information is transmitted. They are like rails for transporting data.

The main characteristic of a processor is performance. It depends on two parameters: clock frequency and bit depth.

Clock rate is the number of operations performed per second. It is measured in megahertz (MHz = million ticks per second) and gigahertz (GHz = billion ticks per second). The higher the clock speed, the faster the machine runs.

Bit depth – the amount of information (bytes) that can be transmitted per clock cycle. The bit capacity of the processor is 8, 16, 32, 64 bits. Modern processors are 32 and 64 bit.

CPU manufacturers

There are two main CPU manufacturers on the market – Intel and AMD.

Intel products are expensive but have high performance. They consume less energy, therefore they overheat less. They have a good connection with RAM.

AMD products lag significantly behind Intel, but are cheaper. They require a lot of energy and interact less well with RAM compared to Intel processors.